PROTON (PROTo ONtology) was developed in the SEKT project as a lightweight upper-level ontology, serving as a modeling basis for a number of tasks in different domains. To mention just a few applications: PROTON is meant to serve as a seed for ontology generation (new ontologies constructed by extending PROTON); it can be used for automatic entity recognition and more generally Information Extraction (IE) from text, for the sake of semantic annotation (metadata generation). PROTON was extended to cover the conceptual knowledge encoded within the most popular datasets from Linked Open Data like DBPedia, GeoNames, etc.

PROTON is split into 2 modules, which have the following URIs:

PROTON Documentation

Proton has two types of documentation:


PROTON is used in various projects around the world, for example:

Semantic search and annotation The National Archives of UK
Research projects in the EU FP7 programme, such as RENDER and MOLTO, which partially support its development.
Proton is also used as a reference layer which facilitates the access and navigation to a segment of LOD cloud in FactForge.


[DamovaEtAl-Proton2010] Mariana Damova, Atanas Kiryakov, Kiril Simov and Svetoslav Petrov
Mapping the central LOD ontologies to PROTON upper-level ontology.
Ontology Mapping Workshop at ISWC 2010, Shanghai, China, November 2010. the paper

[TerzievEtAl2005] Ivan Terziev, Atanas Kiryakov, Dimitar Manov.
Base Upper-level Ontology (BULO) Guidance
Deliverable 1.8.1, SEKT project, July 2005.


PROTON is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license.

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